Affandi Mohd-Zainal is an Industrial Engineering lecturer at Department of Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. He teaches Human Factors Engineering, Safety Engineering and Project Management at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Previously, he has worked as a production engineer in several electronics manufacturing companies in Penang and Johor. He is a graduate member of Institute of Engineers Malaysia, and registered with Board of Engineers Malaysia. He holds B.Sc (Industrial Engineering) from Mississippi State University, M.Eng (Advanced Manufacturing) from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, and PhD (lean sustainability) from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.